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346                HISTORY OF PERSIA
retired to a chosen position on the plains of Baghavand.
The Persian forces, though inferior in numbers, gained
a complete victory. The Turks after experiencing crush-
ing losses fled, the Ottoman general being among the
slain. Tiflis, Ganja, and Erivan were the spoils of victory,
and the Ottoman Court, taught by bitter experience,
agreed to the terms of the Peace of Baghdad.
The Evacuation of the Caspian Provinces by Russia.—
Upon the death of Peter the Great .he forward policy
was abandoned and the councillors4'of Anne, realizing the
strain it had entailed on Russian resources, decided to
evacuate the Caspian provinces. Mazanderan and Astra-
bad, which had never been occupied by the Russians,
together with Gilan were restored to Persia by the Treaty
of Resht in 1732, and by a second treaty, made in 1735,
Baku and Derbent were given up.1 Hanway corroborates
this latter date.
According to Persian accounts, Nadir sent an ulti-
matum to the Russian general requiring him to leave the
country, on pain of being driven out by Nadir'sfarrashes,
or servants. A Muscovite envoy was sent to Meshed
to treat with Nadir, but the latter refused to give an
immediate reply. The envoy accompanied the Persian
camp, and one day was summoned by the great Conqueror,
who had just gained a fresh victory. He found Nadir
sitting on the ground eating bread with his hands and
clothes reeking with blood, and when he inquired the
reason of his being summoned, Nadir replied that he
wished the envoy to see how he ate the coarsest fare with
blood-stained hands : he could tell his master that such
a man would never surrender Gilan. In the Jahangusha
it is stated that the Russians agreed to evacuate Resht and
Lahijan after the expulsion of the Afghans but that they
delayed the fulfilment of the treaty until the following
year, when Nadir had taken Herat. The European
accounts would appear to be the more trustworthy.
The Accession of Nadir Kuli to the Throne, A.H. 1148
(1736).—Nadir, who was now all-powerful with his army,
took advantage of the death of the infant Shah to carry
1 Aitchiioifs Treaties^ p. 5.